(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "MARKING OF ARMY AIRFIELD-HELIPORT OPERATIONAL AND MAINTENANCE FACILITIES"

TM 5-823-4 



TECHNICAL MANUAL 



MARKING OF 

ARMY AIRFIELD-HELIPORT 

OPERATIONAL AND MAINTENANCE 

FACILITIES 



This copy is a reprint which includes current pages from Change 1. 



HEADQUARTERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY 



JULY 1987 



I CHANGE 
NO. 1 



} 



TM 5-823-4 
C1 

HEADQUARTERS 

DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY 

WASHINGTON, DC, 25 April 1988 



MARKING OF ARMY AIRFIELD-HELIPORT 
OPERATIONAL AND MAINTENANCE FACILITIES 



This change updates referenced publications and adds a new chapter for marking and painting of ground 
receiver checkpoints. 

TM 5-823-4, 7 July 1987, is changed as follows: 

1. New or revised material is indicated by a vertical bar in the margin. Where an entire chapter, section, or 
illustration is added or revised, the vertical bar is placed opposite the identification number and title. 

2. Remove old pages and insert new pages as follows: 



Remove pages 



i and ii 

2-1 and 2-2 . 
7-1 and 7-2 , 



Insert pages 
TjandjI] 



A-1. 



2-1 



IA 



8-1 



and|2-2| 
and7^2l 



M\ 



File this transmittal sheet in front of the publication. 



The proponent agency of this publication is the Office of the Chief of Engineers, United States 
Army. Users are invited to send comments and suggested improvements on DA Form 2028 
(Recommended Changes to Publications and Blank Forms) direct to HQDA (DAEN-ECE-G), WASH 
DC 20314-1000. 



By Order of the Secretary of the Army: 



Carl E. Vuono 

General, United States Army 

Chief of Staff 



Official: 



R.L. DILWORTH 

Brigadier General, United States Army 

The Adjutant General 



DISTRIBUTION: 

To be distributed in accordance with DA Form 12-34B, requirements for Army Airfield Pavements. 



TECHNICAL MANUAL 
No. 5-823-4 



*TM 5-823-4 

HEADQUARTERS 

DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY 

WASHINGTON, D. C, 7 July 1987 



MARKING OF ARMY AIRFIELD-HELIPORT 
OPERATIONAL AND MAINTENANCE FACILITIES 
Paragraph 

I CHAPTER ~TH GENERAL 

Purpose 

Scope 

Exceptions 

Definitions 

I CHAPTER ~2~1 MARKING OF SERVICEABLE RUNWAYS AND TAXIWAYS AT AIRFIELDS 

General 

Marking with paint 

Application 

Marking practices 

Runway markings 

Taxiway markings 

Stabilized areas 

Runway shoulder marking 

Aircraft parking ramps, tie down and mooring areas 

I CHAPTER ~3l MARKING OF SERVICEABLE RUNWAYS AND TAXIWAYS AT HELIPORTS 

General 

Marking with paint 

Runway marking 

Taxiway marking requirements 

Heliport identification marker requirements 

I CHAPTER ~4l MARKING OF OVERRUN AND SHOULDER AREAS AT HELIPORTS 

General 

Overrun areas 

Runway-shoulder areas 

Taxiway, taxilane, apron, hardstand, and engine run-up shoulder areas... 

Detail requirements 

I CHAPTER 571 MARKING AND LIGHTING OF CLOSED OR 

HAZARDOUS AREAS ON AIRFIELDS OR HELIPORTS 

Permanently closed runways and taxiways 

Temporarily closed runways and taxiways 

Closed airfields and heliports 

Hazardous areas 

Stabilized areas 

Runway shoulder areas 

I CHAPTER ~6~1 MARKING OF COMPASS SWINGING BASES 

General 

Magnetic effects 

Pavement grade 

Alinement markings 

Clearances 

Marking with paint 

Application of paint 

CHAPTER "771 MARKING OF OBSTRUCTIONS TO AIR NAVIGATION 

General 



Page 



1-1 




1-1 1 


1-2 




1-1| 


1-3 




1-1 1 


1-4 




1-1 1 


2-1 




2-1 1 


2-2 




2-1 1 


2-3 




2-1 1 


2-4 




2-5| 


2-5 




2-5| 


2-6 
2-7 




2-8| 


E14 


2-8 


12-14 


1 2-9 


12-14 


3-1 




3-1 


3-2 




3-1 


3-3 




3-1 


3-4 




3-1 


3-5 




3-1 


4-1 




4-1 


4-2 




4-1 


4-4 




4-1 


4-4 




4-1 


4-5 




4-1 


5-1 




5-1 


5-2 




5-1 


5-3 




5-1 


5-4 




5-1 


5-5 




5-1 


5-6 




5-1 


6-1 




6-1 


6-2 




6-1 


6-3 




6-1 


6-4 




6-1 


6-5 




6-1 


6-6 




6-1 


6-7 




6-1 


7-1 




7-1 1 



This manual supersedes TM 5-823-4, dated January 1977, including all changes. 

Change 1 i 



TM 5-823-4 



LIST OF FIGURES 



Paragraph 



Page 



Detail requirements 

Lighting of airfields, heliports, and obstructions. 

Purpose of marking 

Omission of standard marking 

Colors 

Painting 

Patterns 

Markers 

Special markings 

I CHAPTER ~8~1 GROUND RECEIVER CHECKPOINTS 

Location 

Painting 

I APPENDIX ~~Al REFERENCES 



7-2 



7-3 



7-4 



7-5 



7-6 



7-7 



7-8 



7-9 



LZdH 



8-1 



8-2 



7-1 



7-1 



7-1 



7-1 



7-1 



7-1 



7-2 



7-6 



7-6 



8-1 



8-1 



A-1 



Fi gure 
(2) 



2-1 



2-2 



2-3 



2-4. 



2-5 



2-6 



2-7 



2-8 



3-1 



3-2 



4-1 



4-2 



5-1 



6-1 



7-1 



7-2 



7-3 



7-4 



8-1 



Runway markings. 

Precision instrument runway marking. 

Visual and nonprecision marking. 

Runway numbers and letters. 

Marking for displaced thresholds, blast pads and stopways. 

Taxiway/runway intersection marking. 

Runway shoulder markings. 

Holding position markings. 

Guidelines for marking runways and taxiways at heliports. 

Helipad marking pattern. 

Marking of heliport overrun and shoulder area. 

Marking of shoulders for heliport parking and maintenance aprons and taxiways. 

Closed runway and taxiway markings. 

Army airfield-heliport compass swinging base. 

Painting and lighting of chimneys, poles, towers and similar obstructions. 

Painting and lighting of water towers, storage tanks and similar obstructions. 

Painting and lighting of water towers and similar obstructions. 

Painting of single pedestal water tower by teardrop pattern. 

Ground receiver checkpoint markings. 



Change 1 ii 



TM 5-823-4 



CHAPTER 1 
GENERAL 



1-1. Purpose. Runway and taxiway markings are 
essential for the safe and efficient use of airfields and 
heliports, and their effectiveness is dependent upon 
proper markings and maintenance to maintain an 
acceptable level of conspicuity. This manual provides 
criteria for marking of Army airfields, heliports, and 
obstructions to air navigation at Army installations within 
the United States. For marking of Army airfields, 
heliports, and obstructions to air navigation located in 
foreign countries, this manual will serve as the basic 
reference consistent with host country criteria. 

1-2. Scope. The criteria contained herein is 
applicable to all new construction and alteration to 
existing facilities. Existing facilities will not be re-marked 
for the sole purpose of compliance with the criteria 
contained herein, but will conform to the prescribed 
criteria when remarked for scheduled maintenance or 
repair. Those facilities requiring higher standards 
because of special functions, mission, structural 
requirement, or importance of strategic value, are not 
covered in this manual. Criteria for these and further 
exceptions are normally contained in the design 
directive. 

1-3. Exceptions. Exceptions to criteria prescribed 
and defined herein will not be made without prior 
approval of HQDA (DAEN-ECEG) WASH DC 20314- 
1000. 

1-4. Definitions. The following definitions apply to 
terms used in this manual. 

a. Airfield. A facility designed and used for the 
express purpose of operation, maintenance 



and basing of either or both, fixed and rotarywing aircraft. 

b. Heliport. A facility designed and used for 
the express purpose of operation, maintenance and 
basing of rotary-wing aircraft only. 

c. Helipad. A facility designed and used for 
the express purpose of operation of rotary-wing aircraft. 

d. Visual runway. A runway having no 
straight-in instrument approach procedure and intended 
solely for the operation of aircraft using visual approach 
procedure. 

e. Nonprecision instrument runway. A runway 
having an existing instrument approach procedure 
utilizing air navigation facilities with only horizontal 
guidance for which a straightin nonprecision approach 
procedure has been approved. 

f. Precision instrument runway. A runway 
having an existing instrument approach procedure 
utilizing a precision instrument landing system. 

g. Runway threshold. The designated 
beginning of the runway that is available and suitable for 
the landing of aircraft. 

h. Displaced threshold. A threshold that is 
located at a point on the runway other than the beginning 
of the full strength pavement and the paved area 
between the beginning of the full strength pavement and 
the displaced threshold is used for takeoff or rollout of 
aircraft. 

/'. Relocated threshold. A threshold that is 
located at a point on the runway other than the beginning 
of the full strength pavement and the paved area 
between the former threshold and the relocated 
threshold is no longer used for landing or takeoff of 
aircraft. 



1-1 



TM 5-823-4 



CHAPTER 2 
MARKING OF SERVICEABLE RUNWAYS AND TAXIWAYS AT AIRFIELDS 



2-1. General. The criteria contained within this 
chapter conforms to Federal Aviation Administration 
(FAA) Advisory Circular (AC) No. 1 50-5340-1 E with 
minor exceptions. Where the criteria stated herein is in 
conflict with the AC 1 50/5340-1 E, this manual will prevail. 

2-2. Marking with paint. Initial marking of runways 
and taxiways at airfields should be done as soon as 
possible, subsequent to the required curing period. Re- 
marking or revising existing marks should be 
accomplished as often as necessary. The effectiveness 
of markings is heavily dependent upon their proper 
maintenance to provide maximum contrast with 
backgrounds. 

a. Color marking. All runways will be marked 
with white reflective paint. Taxiways will be marked with 
yellow nonreflective paint. 

(1) Runways. Reflective paints used to 
mark or re-mark runways will conform to Federal 
Specifications (Fed. Spec.) TT-P45E or TT-P-1952. 

(2) Taxiways. Nonreflective paints used to 
mark or re-mark taxiways will conform to Federal 
Specifications (Fed. Spec.) TT-P-85E or TT-B-1325. 

b. Application of paint. Painted markings will 
be applied to paved areas only after the pavements have 
been allowed to cure thoroughly. New pavement 
surfaces will be allowed to cure for a minimum of 30 
days before application of marking materials. Care will 
be taken to insure that the pavement surface is dry and 
clean prior to painting. 

(1) Rigid pavements. When painted 
markings are to be applied to rigid pavements that have 
been cured with a membrane-type curing compound, the 
surface to be painted will be cleaned thoroughly and the 
curing compound removed by sandblasting prior to 
painting. 

(2) Flexible pavements. Flexible 
pavements will be a llowed to cure a s long as possible 
before painting (see Iparaqraph 2-2bl above also). To 
prevent undue softening of the bitumen by the paint, and 
pickup, displacement, or discoloration by tires of traffic, 
the maximum drying time as prescribed by the paint 



manufacturer or contract specifications will be enforced. 

2-3. Application. The marking elements used for 
the various runway classifications are illustrated in figure 
2-1. Markings for precision instrument runways are 
shown in I figure 2-2.I and markings for n onprecision 
instrument and visual runways are shown in | figure 2^3] 
A runway should be marked in accordance with its 
present usage (visual, nonprecision instrument, or 
precision instrument) unless upgrading to a higher 
classification is imminent. The marking elements for 
each runway classification, which should never be less 
but which may contain additional elements normally used 
on higher runway classification, are as follows: 

a. Visual runway. 

(1) Centerline marking. 

(2) Designation marking. 

(3) Threshold marking (on runways used 
or intended to be used by international commercial air 
transport). 

(4) Fixed distance marking (on runways 
4,000 feet or longer used by jet aircraft). 

(5) Holding position markings (for 
taxiway/runway intersections). 

b. Nonprecision instrument runway. 

(1) Centerline marking. 

(2) Designation marking. 

(3) Threshold marking. 

(4) Fixed distance marking (on runways 
4,000 feet or longer used by jet aircraft). 

(5) Holding position markings (for 
taxiway/runway intersections and instrument landing 
system (ILS) critical areas). 

c. Precision instrument runway. 

(1) Centerline marking. 

(2) Designation marking. 

(3) Threshold marking. 

(4) Fixed distance marking. 

(5) Touchdown zone marking. 

(6) Side stripes. 

(7) Holding position markings (for 
taxiway/runway intersections and ILS critical areas). 



Change 1 2-1 



TM 5-823-4 




□ 








STABILIZED SHOULDER 



PRECISION INSTRUMENT RUNWAY 





NONPRECISION INSTRUMENT RUNWAY 



J 



I v_ 



NONPRECISION INSTRUMENT RUNWAY 



a i r 



+± 



i i + 



-VISUAL RUNWAY 



1=1 



NOTE 
I I RUNWAY IDENTIFICATION SIGN 




CD 



VISUAL RUNWAY 



□ 



Figure 2- 1 . Runway markings. 
Change 1 2-2 



TM 5-823-4 



FIXED DISTANCE MARKING 




Figure 2-2. Precision instrument runway marking. (Sheet 1 of 2). 



2-3 



TM 5-823-4 



HOLDING LINE 
MARKING 



7AX/WAY— ' 



3' WIDE- 



RUNWAY 



5' STRIPES ► 



JOO' 




V- 2 SPACES- 




Hh 



JO' 



55' 



♦ 70' 



75' 



Figure 2-2. Precision instrument runway marking. (Sheet 2 of 2). 



2-4 



TM 5-823-4 



mote: units me expressed as ESJ^.t. I9_ 



notes: 




CENTERLINE 15T0 3. 

I ALL STRIPES AND SPACES TO BE ° 49 ° '" 

EQUAL WIDTH 



CENTERLINE t MAXIMUM WIDTH 6 MCHES (lie* ) 
J. TO L MMIMUM WIDTH 4 INCHES (I0«.»>. 



6 IB IZ 36 ' 14 

VISUAL RUHWAY 




— THRESHOLD MARKER 
STRIPE (STRIATED) 




HOLDING LINE 
MARKING 
SEE DETAIL 
FIGURE 6 



FROST AREA MARKING 
(TYPICAL I 



NONPRECISION INSTRUMENT RUNWAY 



Figure 2-3. Visual and nonprecision marking. 



2-4. Marking practices. The color of markings used 
on runways is white, while that used on taxiways or for 
marking deceptive, closed, or hazardous areas is yellow. 
On light-colored runway pavements, the contrast of the 
markings can be increased by outlining with a black 
border at least 6 inches in width. In some locations the 
use of striated marking, consisting of painted stripes 4 
inches to 6 inches wide with equal width of unpainted 
area, has been effective in reducing frost heave of the 
pavement. This method also increases the coefficient of 
friction over the marking area. However, since this 
method results in reduced marking conspicuity, frequent 
maintenance is required to provide an acceptable 
marking system. Due to the reduced conspicuity, 
striated marking is not used on Category II or III runways. 

2-5. Runway markings. 

a. Marking precedence. Where runways 
intersect, the markings on the runway of the higher 
precedence continue through the intersection, while the 
markings of the runway of the lower precedence are 
interrupted except that the runway threshold marking, 
designation marking, and touchdown zone markings are 
relocated along the lower precedence runway to avoid 
the intersection area. For intersection of runways of the 
same precedence order, the preferred runway (lowest 
approach minimums or most often used) is considered to 
be of a higher precedence order. For marking purposes, 
the order precedence, in descending order, is as follows: 
(1) Precision instrument runway, Category 
III. 



I. 



(2) Precision instrument runway, Category 

(3) Precision instrument runway, Category 



(4) Nonprecision instrument runway. 

(5) Visual runway. 

b. Runway designation marking. Runways are 
identified by the whole number nearest one-tenth (1/10) 
the magnetic azimuth of the runway centerline. The 
magnetic azimuth of the runway centerline is measured 
clockwise from the magnetic north when viewed from the 
direction of approach. For example, where the magnetic 
azimuth is 183 degrees, the runway designation marking 
would be 18; and for a magnetic azimuth of 87 degrees, 
the runway designation marking would be 9. For a 
magnetic azimuth ending in the number "5," such as 185 
degrees, the runway designation marking can be either 
18 or 19. Numbers and supplemental let ters; where 
required for parallel runways, are shown in | figure 2^4| 
The supplemental letter is placed between the 
designation numbers and the threshold or threshold 
marking as shown in lfigure 2-2. 1 Single digits are not 
preceded by a zero. The size and spacing of the 
numbers and letters are reduced only when necessary 
due to space limitations on narrow runways and should 
be no closer than 2 feet from the runway edge (or 
runway edge stripes if used). For parallel runways, the 
supplemental letter is determined as follows, in the order 
shown from left to right when viewed from the direction of 
approach: 

(1) For two parallel runways: "L", "R". 

(2) For three parallel runways: "L", 
"C","R". 



2-5 



TM 5-823-4 




(SEE NOTE 4) 



NOTES: 

I. ALL LETTERS AND NUMERALS EXCEPT THE NUMBER ELEVEN AS SHOWN ARE HORIZONTALLY SPACEO 19 FEET 

(4.C METERS] APART. 
t. FIGURES ARE TO SCALE 

J DIMENSIONS ARE EXPRESSEO THUS: -jj$l NS t.|. # 
4. THE NUMERAL I, WHEN USED ALONE. CONTAIN* A HORIZONTAL BAN TO DIFFERENTIATE IT 

FROM THE RUNWAY CENTERLINE MARKINO 



Figure 2-4. Runway numbers and letters. 



c. Runway threshold marking. The runway 
threshold marking consists of eight longitudinal stripes of 
uniform dimensions arranged symmetrically about the 
runway centerline as shown in | figure 2-2. | The stripes 
are 150 feet long and 5 feet wide and are spaced 14 
inches apart except for the center space which is 8 feet. 

d. Runway centerline markings. The runway 
centerline markings are located on the centerline of the 
runway and consist of a line of uniformly spaced stripes 
and gaps. The stripes are 120 feet in len gth, and the 
gaps are 80 feet in length as shown ir | figure 2-2| 
Adjustments to the length of the stripes and gaps, where 
necessary to accommodate the runway length, are made 
near the runway midpoint. The minimum width of the 
stripes is 12 inches for visual runways, 18 inches for 
nonprecision instrument runways, and 36 inches for 
precision instrument runways. 

e. Runway touchdown zone marking. 
Touchdown zone markings consist of groups of one, two, 
and three rectangular bars symmetrically arranged in 
pairs about the runway centerline as shown i n] figure 2 : 2l 
For runways less than 150 feet in width, the markings 
and spaces are reduced proportionally, but the lengths 
remain the same. On shorter runways, those pairs of 
markings which would extend to within 900 feet of the 
runway midpoint are eliminated. The 



fixed distance markings are a part of the touchdown 
zone markings but are used alone on certain 
nonprecisio n instrument run ways and visual runways as 
indicated in paragraphs 2-3b and !2-3fl . 

f. Runwayside stripe marking. Runway side 
stripes consist of continuous stripes located along each 
side of the runway to provide contrast with the 
surrounding terrain or to delinate the full strength runway 
pavement area. The maximum distance between the 
outer edges of the stripes is 200 feet. The stripes have a 
minimum width of 36 inches for precision instrument 
runways and are at least equal to the width of the runway 
centerline stripes on other runways. 

g. Displaced threshold marking. Displaced 
threshold areas which are used for takeoffs or rollouts 
are marked as shown in |tigure 2-5^ . Runway edge 
stripes, where used on the runway, are continued along 
the edges of the displaced threshold area. Taxiway 
centerline markings may extend into the displaced area. 

h. Relocated threshold marking. Relocated 
threshold areas where the abandoned ru nway area is not 
used for taxiing are marked as shown in |figure 2^5fcl and 
where used as a taxiway are marked as shown in figure 
2-5c. 

/'. Markings for blast pa ds and s topway. 
Markings for these areas are shown in |figure 2-"5h 



2-6 



TM 5-823-4 



FOUR ARROWHEADS PLACED SYMMETRICALLY ABOVE 
CENTERLINE WITH UNIFORM LATERAL SPACING AS 
INDICATED. ■ RUNWAY WIDTH 




L- J" MINIMUM 
3 
NOTES 

1 ALL MARKINGS IN THE DISPLACED AREA ARE YELLOW EXCEPT THE THRESHOLD 
BAR WHICH IS WHITE. 

2 RUNWAY EDGE STRIPES, WHEN USED ON THE RUNWAY .EXTEND INTO THE 



DISPLACED AREA 



LOCATE HOLD LINE TO PROTECT 
APPROACH SURFACES AND ILS 
CRITICAL AREA 



(a) DISPLACED THRESHOLD MARKINGS 



-ir f 

^- ~ MINIMUM 1 i. JO 

1_" j h7 




NOTES " 7 5 

I. SOFT. IISnil SPACING MAY 8E USED WHEN LENGTH OF AREA IS LESS 

THAN ISO FT 175m I IN WHICH CASE THE FIRST FULL CHEVRON STARTS 

AT THE INDEX POINT. 

Z. CHEVRONS ARE COLORED YELLOW 

S CHEVRON SPACING MAY BE DOUBLE IF LENGTH OF AREA 

EXCEEDS !°S°. 
300 

(b) MARKINGS FOR BLAST PADS AND 
STOP WAYS 




DETAIL "A" 



DIMENSIONS EXPRESSED THUS SO ■ FEET 

19 METERS 




TAXIWAY CENTERLINE MARKING 




(c) RELOCATED THRESHOLD WHERE THE 
ABANDONED RUNWAY SURFACE IS 



LOCATE HOLD LINE TO PROTE 
APPROACH SURFACES AND ILS 
CRITICAL AREA 



„ USED AS A TAXIWAY 



Figure 2-5. Marking for displaced thresholds, blast pads and stopways. 



2-7 



TM 5-823-4 



2-6. Taxiway markings. 

a. Taxiway centerline marking. The taxiway 
centerline marking is a continuous yellow line of 6-inch 
minimum width. 

(1) On a taxiway curve, the taxiway 
centerline marking continues from the straight portion of 
the taxiway at a constant distance from the outside edge 
of the curve. For taxiway intersections designed for the 
straight-through method of taxiing, the centerline 
markings continue straight through the intersection. 

(2) At taxiway intersections with a runway 
end, the taxiway centerline marking is terminated at the 
runway edge (with exception of the situation where there 
is a displaced threshold, in which case the taxiway 



centerline may be extended onto the runway displaced 
area). For intersections of taxiways with runways where 
the taxiway serves as an exit from the runway, the 
taxiway centerline m arking may be extended onto the 
runway as shown in Ifiqure 2-6~1 The taxiway centerline 
marking is extended parallel to the runway centerline 
marking for a distance of 200 feet beyond the point of 
tangency. The curve radius should be large enough to 
provide a clearance to the taxiway or runway edge of at 
least 1/2 the width of the taxiway. For taxiways crossing 
a runway, the taxiway centerline marking may continue 
across the runway but must be interrupted for the runway 
markings. 



2-8 



TM 5-823-4 



X - SEE PARA 2-6 



DIMENSIONS ARE 
EXPRESSED THUS 




4 LINES AMOS ttkZtt^ 

AT M EACH 
O.IS 



TAXI-HOLDING POSITION 
MARKING 



TAXIWAY 
NOT AT 
RIGHT ANGLE 
TO RUNWAY 



TAXIWAY 
AT RIGHT 

ANGLE TO 
RUNWAY 



TAXIWAY AT 
EXTREMITY 
OF RUNWAY 



Figure 2-6. Taxiway/runway intersection marking. (Sheet 1 of 2). 



2-9 



TM 5-823-4 




TRANSVERSE STRIPES 



SEE DETAIL BELOW FOR 
TAXIWAY EDGE MARKING 

6 IN {15 cm) 



TYPICAL TAXIWAY 
INTERSECTION MARKING 



6 IN (15cm) 
YELLOW LINES 



Figure 2-6. Taxiway/runway intersection marking. (Sheet 2 of 2). 



b. Taxiway edge marking. The edge markings 
are used where the edge of the full strength pavement of 
the taxiway is not readily discernible or where a taxiway 
must be outlined when established on a large paved area 
such as an apron. These markings consist of continuous 



double yellow lines with the line being 6 inches in width 
and spaced 6 inches apart as shown ir l figure 2 : 6l (sheet 
2). If only one edge is not discernible, both pavement 
edges will be marked. 



2-10 



TM 5-823-4 



SHOULDER 



MIDPOINT OF 
RUNWAY ' 



_5_MAXIMUM 

1.5 

RUNWAY 
THRESHOLD 



1 



RUNWAY; 




wC 



SHOULDER 



SKA 




^MAXIMUM 
1.5 

DIMENSIONS ARE 

EXPRESSED 

thus: **& • a IP- 
meters g 




ALL SHOULDER 
£ MARKING IS 
YELLOW 



_5_MAXIMUM — ' 
1.5 



Figure 2-7. Runway shoulder markings. 



c. Holding position markings. Holding position 
markings co nsist of a p ainted hold line and a Type 1 sign 
as shown in Ifiqure 2^8] An unlighted Type 1 sign may be 
used on unlighted runways. The solid lines of the 
holding position markings are always on the side where 
the aircraft is to hold. The sign is installed on the left 
side of the hold line as viewed from the holding side. At 
locations where it is impractical to install the sign on the 
left side, it may be installed on the right side. For hold 
lines over 150 feet in length, signs are installed on both 



sides. Where desired to increase the conspicuity of the 
markings, reflective paint, reflective marking tape, or the 
addition of in-pavement retroreflective markers may be 
used. The hold line markings are installed perpendicular 
to the taxiway centerline. Signs are installed in 
accordance with AC 150/5340-18, Taxiway Guidance 
Sign System. 

(1) Taxiway holding position markings. 
The taxiway holding line will be placed at a distance of 
100 feet from the structural pavement edge of a runway. 



2-11 



Where used, locate the taxiway holding line on taxiway 
intersections 100 feet from the structural pavement 
edge. When the taxiway is associated with a holding 
bay, the marking may be parallel to the centerline of the 
runway or intersecting taxi way. Details of the ta xiway 
holding line are shown in l figures 2-2 l and I 2-6. I The 
markings are not required on taxiways which are never 
used for crossing or access to the runway. The 
inscription on the associated sign is the runway number. 
For intersections where takeoffs are conducted, the 
inscription denotes only that particular runway such as 
"18." For other intersections, the inscription denotes both 
runways such as "18-36." In this example runway 18 is to 
the left and runway 36 is to the right. 

(2) ILS holding position markings. ILS 
(instrument landing system) holding position markings 



TM 5-823-4 

are used to protect ILS localize r and glide slope critical 
areas as shown in Ifigure 2-8l Pending completion of 
tests and issuance of criteria for critical areas, the ILS 
critical areas should be used for microwave landing 
system (MLS) and interim standard MLS (ISMLS) 
facilities to insure signal protection. Where the normal 
location of the ILS holding position marking and the 
taxiway holding position marking falls within 25 feet of 
each other, the ILS holding position marking may be 
omitted provided that the taxiway holding position 
marking is located to protect both the runway and the ILS 
critical area. An ILS holding position marking should 
never be installed between a taxiway holding position 
marking and a runway. The sign inscription for ILS 
holding position markings is "ILS." 



2-12 



TM 5-823-4 




t- 3T»200-L Sm«- 

»I«C»*FT T»IL HEIGHT 

AIRCRAFT LEMCTH 

ANGLE BETWEEN RUNWAY AND TAXIWAY CENTERLINES 



£ 



(c) L0CATIN6 HOL0IN6 POSITION UNE FOR TAXIWAY INTERSECTING 
RUNWAY AT AN ANCLE LESS THAN 25 0E6REES 




"TT 



-£ee: 






(b) EXAMPLE FOR A NONPRECISKW (LOCALIZER APPROACH) 
RUNWAY USED BY TURBOJETS LESS THAN 60.000 LBS 
(Z7Z00kj) 




(a) EXAMPLE FOR A PRECISION APPROACH RUNWAY 
FOR LAR6E AIRCRAFT 



Figure 2-8. Holding position markings. 
2-13 



TM 5-823-4 



2-7. Stabilized areas. Holding bays, aprons, and 
taxiways are sometimes pr6vided with shoulder 
stabilization to prevent blast and water erosion. This 
stabilization may have the appearance of a full strength 
pavement but is not intended for use by aircraft. Usually 
the taxiway edge marking will define this area, but 
conditions may exist such as stabilized islands or taxiway 
curves where confusion may exist as to which side of the 
edge stripe is the full strength pavement. Where such a 
condition exists, the stabilized area is marked with 3-foot 
wide yell ow lines perpendicul ar to the edge stripes as 



shown in Ifigure 2-6 (sheet 2) 



On straight sections, the 
marks are placed at a maximum of 100-foot spacing. On 
curves, the marks are placed a maximum of 50 feet 
apart between the curve tangents. The stripes are 
extended to 5 feet from the edge of 



the stabilized area or to 25 feet in length, whichever is 
less. 

2-8. Runway shoulder marking. Usually the 
runway side stripes will indicate the edges of the full 
strength pavement. However, conditions may exist, such 
as exceptionally wide runways, where there is a need to 
indicate the area not intende d for use by aircraft. In such 
cases, chevrons, as shown ir l figure 2-7] are used. 

2-9. Aircraft parking ramps, tiedown and mooring 
areas. Tie-down points at parking ramps and tie-down 
or mooring areas are usually marked in the shape of a 
ball with yellow nonreflective paint. Dimensions of the 
area to be painted are at the discretion of the airfield or 
heliport commander. 



2-14 



TM 5-823-4 



CHAPTER 3 
MARKING OR SERVICEABLE RUNWAYS AND TAXIWAYS AT HELIPORTS 



3-1. General. Marking of heliports will conform to the 
requirements as set forth below and govern the initial 
marking and re-marking of serviceable runways, 
taxiways, landing pads, and other areas designated for 
heliport and helipad operations. 

3-2. Marking with paint. Initial marking of runways 
and taxiways should be done as soon as possible, 
subsequent to the required curing period. Re-marking or 
revising existing markings should be accomplished as 
often as necessary. The effectiveness of markings is 
heavily dependent upon their proper maintenance to 
provide maximum contrast with backgrounds. 

a. Color marking. All runways will be marked 
with white reflective paint. Identification markers, landing 
pads and hoverpoints will be marked with white 
nonreflective paint. All taxiways will be painted with 
yellow nonreflective paint. 

b. Application of paint. Painted marking will be 
applied to paved areas only after the pavements have 
been allowed to cure thoroughly. New pavement 
surfaces will be allowed to cure for a minimum of 30 
days before application of marking materials. Care will 
be taken to insure that the pavement surface is dry and 
clean prior to painting. 

(1) When painted markings are to be 
applied to rigid pavements that have been cured with a 
membrane-type curing compound, the surface to be 
painted must be cleaned thoroughly and the curing 
compound must be removed by sandblasting. 

(2) Flexible pavements will be allowed to 
cure as long as practicable before painting, and, to 
prevent undue softening of the bitumen by the paint, the 
maximum drying-time requirements of the paint 
specifications will be strictly enforced. 

3-3. Runway marking. Markings on serviceable 
runways will consist of centerline marking and runway- 
direction numbers. 

a. Runway-centerline marking. The runway- 
centerline marking will be a solid white line 1 foot in 
width. The centerline stripe of each runway will 
terminat e 20 feet fr om the runway-direction numbers as 
shown in | figure 3^T1 

b. Runway-direction number. Each runway 



end will be designated by number and, where required, 
by letter. Numbers and letters assigned will be 
determined from the approach directio n and will co nform 
to the form and dimensions shown in l figure 3-1 J The 
number assigned will be the whole number nearest one- 
tenth of the magnetic azimuth of the centerline of the 
runway, measured clockwise from the magnetic North. 
Single digits will not be preceded by a zero. Where 
required, the letters used to differentiate between parallel 
runways will be as follows in the order shown from left to 
right, for two parallel runways-"L", "R". 

c. Intersection of runway ends. Where runway 
ends have a common intersection, preference in location 
of the marking will be given to the more important 
runway. 

3-4. Taxiway marking requirements. Marking on 
serviceable taxiways will consist of a centerline stripe 
and a holding line. The centerline stripe will be a solid 
yellow line 6 inches in width. Where a taxiway and a 
runway have a common intersection, the centerline 
marking of the taxiway will terminate at a poi nt in line 
with the inside edge of the runway as shown in Ifiqure 3- 1 
pn The holdin g-line marking will be as shown in detail "A" 
oi l figure (Pil and will be located 100 feet from the inside 
edge of the adjacent runway. 

3-5. Heliport identification marker requirements. 

Heliport identification marking pattern s will be in 
accordance with the dimensional criteria ir i figure 3 : 2l 

a. Application. The marking pattern will be 
used as an identification marker at all heliports at ground 
level or elevated, and at helicopter takeoff and landing 
areas at any other location. All helicopter landing areas 
bearing the outdated day marker or nonstandard 
identification marking will be re-marked with the proper 
identification marking as soon as practicable. 

b. Location. The marker will be placed in the 
approximate center of the touchdown area of all 
helicopter landing pads and at the ends of all helicopter 
runways. 

c. Special requirements. 

(1) Existing construction. On all existing 
facilities where the color of the touchdown surface is 
lighter than color chip 36440 of Federal Standard 595, 
the mar king pattern will be outlined with black paint as 
shown in | figure 3^2] 



3-1 



TM 5-823-4 



Jllliillff 







£*iH»- 



NUMERALS AND LETTERS CENTERUNE V 

ALL NUMERALS AND LETTERS WIDE- 

SHALL BE HORIZONTALLY SPACED 
9 FT APART EXCEPT THE 
NUMERALS IN NUMBER ELEVEN 
WHICH SHALL BE AS SHOWN 



ENGINE 
RUNUP 
AREA 



CENTERLINE 6" WIDE 



HOLDING LINE 
MARKING SEE 
DETAIL A 



HL 

■EI 



15* 



20' 



I 




TAXIWAY 



h^k 




SEVEN SPACES 
AT 6 - 3-6 



DETAIL A 



Figure 3-1. Guidelines for marking runways and taxiways at heliports. 



The width of the pattern outline is referenced as 
dimension "D" in | figure S^ and is the same for both the 
inner and outer outline. If the color of the touchdown 
area is equal to or darker than the referenced color, the 
black outline will not be included in the marking pattern. 

(2) New construction. The touchdown 
area on which the marking pattern will be placed will be 



constructed in a manner so that the surface will be equal 
to or darker than color chip 36440 of Federal Standard 
595. The black pattern outline will not be included in the 
marking pattern. When the touchdown facility is 
constructed of rigid pavement the referenced color will 
be provided for a minimum thickness of 2 inches from 
the top surface. 



3-2 



TM 5-823-4 



T 
11 




3 C 



D C 



A : 
B : 



DIMENSIONS 

0.6 F (maximum of 20 metres) 
0.5 A 



HELIPAD SIZE 
(F) 

13.0 - 18.0 m 



PATTERN LINE 
WIDTH (C) 



1.0 m 



BORDER EDGE 
WIDTH (D) 



0.4 m 



CORNER EDGE 
LENGTH (E) 



1.5 » 



18.3 - 24.0 a 
24.3 - 30.0 m 
30.2 - 45.0 m 



1.3 m 



1.5 m 



2.0 m 



0.6 m 



0.6 m 



0.75 m 



2.2 m 



3.0 m 



3.5 m 



Figure 3-2. Helipad marking pattern. 
3-3 



TM 5-823-4 



CHAPTER 4 
MARKING OF OVERRUN AND SHOULDER AREAS AT HELIPORTS 



4-1. General. Double-bituminous-surface-treatment 
overrun and shoulder areas that are not intended for 
aircraft traffic will be marked with yellow lines 18 inches 
wide in accordance with the requirements below. 
Configura tions compl yin g with these requirements are 
detailed in l figures 4 r n an d~4 : 2~l 

4-2. Overrun areas. Overrun areas will be marked 
with a chevron layout as shown in Ifigure 4-171 The index 
point for the layout of the chevron marking will be the 
point of intersection of the runway centerline and the 
runway threshold line. The apex of the initial chevron on 
the approach side of the threshold will be at a point 25 
feet outward from the index point. Subseque nt chevrons 
will be placed on 50-foot centers as shown in | figure 4^ 
Partial chevrons will be placed as indicated in l figure 4 r T1 
The apex of each chevron will be on the centerline with 
each leg making an angle of 45 degrees with the runway 
centerline. The chevrons will terminate at a point 5 feet 
inside the outer edge of the shoulder area. 

4-3. Runway-shoulder areas. All runway-s houlder 
areas will be marked as shown in l figure 4-1.1 These 
partial chevrons are a continuation of the chevrons used 
in marking overrun ar eas as indic ated in l paragraph 4-21 
above and as shown in | figure 4TTJ The chevrons used in 
marking the runway-shoulder areas will have the same 
index point as the chevrons marking the overrun areas. 
Chevrons will be laid out uniformly from both ends of the 
runway as shown in Ifigure 4TTI The partial chevrons will 
terminate at a point 5 feet inside the outer edge of the 
shoulder area. 

4-4. Taxiway, taxilane, apron, hardstand, and 
engine-runup shoulder areas. 

a. Straight sections. Straight sections of 
taxiways will be marked by yellow lines 18 inches wide 
beginning at the runway-shoulder edge and spaced at 
intervals not exceeding 50 feet as shown in l figure £T\ 
The lines will be perpendicular to the centerline of the 



taxiway, beginning at the edge of the taxiway and 
extending outward to a point 5 feet inside the outer edge 
of the shoulder area. Straight sections of taxilane, 
apron, hardstand, and engine-runup shoulder areas will 
be marked by lines beginning at points not exceeding 50 
feet from all points of tangency of curves and will be 
perpendicu lar to the paved area edges as shown in 
I figures 4 : T1 an d 4-21 Lines will terminate 5 feet inside the 
outer edge of the shoulder areas. 

b. Curved sections. Curved sections of all 
shoulder areas will be marked by one line beginning at 
the edge of the paved areas and extending outward to a 
point 5 feet inside the outer edge of the shoulder area. 
The marking will be placed radially beg inn ing a t the 
center of the curve as shown in l figures 4-1 l an d~?2~l 

4-5. Detail requirements. 

a. Color marking. All heliport overrun and 
shoulder areas will be marked with nonreflective yellow 
paint. 

b. Marking materials. Nonreflective paint used 
in marking or re-marking overrun and shoulder areas will 
consist of th e pigmented binder (paint) stated in 
baragraph 2-2| a(2) above. 

c. Application of paint. Painted markings will 
be applied to overrun and shoulder areas only after the 
double bituminous surface treatment has been allowed 
to cure as long as practicable. Care will be taken to 
insure that the surface to be painted is clean and dry 
prior to painting. To prevent undue softening of the 
bitumen by the paint, the maximum drying-time 
requirements of the paint specifications will be strictly 
enforced. 



4-1 



TM 5-823-4 



60* 25'25' 



SZxZSZ5±SZ5ZX3 S\X*<7 




I MARKED SHOULDER AND 
1 OVERRUN AREAS 



Figure 4-1. Marking of heliport overrun and shoulder area. 



4-2 



TM 5-823-4 



MARKED 
SHOULDERS 



z 
2 



s 



r— 7 



J I L 



f 




ACCESS 
ROAD 



V V_J I L 



rr 



WASH 
APRON 



V- 



~7 



MAINTENANCE 
AND ACCESS 
APRON 



RIGID PAVEMENT 
PARKING APRON 



1 — r 



J L 



TAXIWAY 



HANGAR 



o 
in 






o 

X 



< 

2 



J L 



t — 1 — 1 — 1 — 1 — i — 1 i 1 — \ — 1 — 1 1 1 r 



Figure 4-2. Marking of shoulders for heliport parking and maintenance aprons and taxiways. 



4-3 



TM 5-823-4 
CHAPTER 5 
MARKING AND LIGHTING OF CLOSED OR HAZARDOUS AREAS ON AIRFIELDS OR HELIPORTS 



5-1. Permanently closed runways and taxiways. 

For runways and taxiways which have been permanently 
closed, the lighting circuits will be disconnected. For 
runways, the threshold markings, runway designation 
marking, and touchdown zone markings will be 
obliterated, and crosses will be placed at each end and 
at 1,000-foot intervals. For taxiways, a cross will be 
placed on the clo sed taxiway at ea ch e ntrance. The 
crosses shown in Ifigures 5-T& and ETTb are normally 
used, but the crosses shown in lfiqures 5^Tb and 15-1 d / are 
more readily seen from aircraft on final approach and 
may be used where desired. 

5-2. Temporarily closed runways and taxiways. 

Temporarily closed runways are treated in the same 
manner as in l paragraph 5-11 except runway and taxiway 
lights will be turned off and runway markings are not 
obliterated, crosses are usually of the temporary type 
(constructed of material such as fabric or plywood), and 
crosses are required only at runway ends. The crosses 
are located on top of the runway numerals. For 
tempora ry marking, the dim ensions of the crosses 
shown in lfiqures S^Tb and |5-1ib mav be reduced to permit 
use of standard sheets of 4 by 8-foot plywood. 
Temporarily closed taxiways are usually tre ated as an 
unusable area as explained in l paragraph 5-4l below. 

5-3. Closed airfields and heliports. When all 
runways are closed temporarily, the runways are marked 
as in l paragraph 5-2 1 above and the airport beacon is 
turned off. When all runway s are closed pe rmanently, 
the runways are marked as in Iparaqraph 5-1 l above, the 
airport beacon is disconnected, and a cross is placed in 



the segmented circle or at a 
segmented circle exists. 



central location if no 



5-4. Hazardous areas. Hazardous areas, in which 
no part of an aircraft may enter, are indicated by use of 
barricades with alternate orange and white markings. 
The barricades are supplemented with orange flags a 
minimum of 20 by 20 inches square and made and 
installed so that they are always in the extended position 
and properly oriented. For nighttime use the barricades 
are supplemented with flashing red lights. The intensity 
of the lights and spacings for barricades, flags, and lights 
must be such to adequately define and delineate the 
hazardous area. 

5-5. Stabilized areas. For marking requirements of 
holding bays, aprons and taxiways of closed or 
hazardo us areas at ai rfields and heliports, the criteria 
stated ir l paragraph 2-7| will apply. 

5-6. Runway shoulder areas. For marking 
requirements of runway shoulder areas of closed or 
hazardo us areas at ai rfields and heliports, the criteria 
stated ir l paragraph 2-8 will apply. 



5-1 



TM 5-823-4 




(a) CLOSED RUNWAY 



DIMENSIONS ARE 
EXPRESSEO THUS: FEET \0 

METERS '• 3 



CENTERLINE 
(b) ALTERNATE CLOSEO RUNWAY 




TAXIWAY 
CENTERLINE 



(c) CLOSEO TAXIWAY 




(d) ALTERNATE CLOSEO TAXIWAY 



Figure 5- 1 . Closed runway and taxiway markings. 
5-2 



TM 5-823-4 



CHAPTER 6 
MARKING OF COMPASS SWINGING BASES 



6-1. General. Compass swinging bases for alining 
aircraft for the precise calibration of all types of air 
navigation equipment will be marked as shown in figure 
11. 

6-2. Magnetic effects. Because of the calibration 
operation involved, the compass-swinging base will be 
located in an area of the airfield or heliport where local 
magnetic influence is at a minimum to preclude inherent 
deviations that would destroy the accuracy of the 
calibration. To realize this objective, the compass- 
swinging base will not be placed in proximity to power 
transmission lines or concentrations of underground 
conduits or pipe, railroads, or rail sidings, automobile or 
aircraft traffic, buildings containing ferrous metals, or in 
areas containing natural magnetic disturbances. Each 
location for a compass-swinging base must be checked 
by a magnetometer to insure that the area has negligible 
magnetic characteristics regardless of adherence to the 
above criteria and magnetic limitations specified in 
Military Standard MIL-STD-765. 

6-3. Pavement grade. The compass-swinging-base 
pad will be level in all directions. The grade of the 
connecting taxiway and shoulder areas associated with 
this facility will be in accordance with criteria given in TM 
58034. 

6-4. Alinement markings. The compass-swinging- 
base pad will be marked with precision alinement 
indicators accurate to within 0.25 percent of 1 degree. 



a. A minimum distance of 275 feet will be 
provided from the center of the compass-swinging-base 
pad to the nearest: : 

-Significant quantity of iron. 
-Parking area or hardstand for aircraft, vehicles, 
or equipment. 

-Taxiway, or engine runup. 

b. A minimum distance of 100 feet will be 
provided from the center of the compass-swinging base 
to a 67 kilovolt or less power transmission line. 
Consideration will be given to the necessity for greater 
separation in order to avoid adverse influence from 
power transmission lines in excess of 67 kilovolt. 

6-6. Marking with paint. Initial marking and re- 
marking of compass swinging bases should be done as 
soon as possible, subsequent to the required curing 
period. Re-marking existing marks should be 
accomplished as often as necessary. The effectiveness 
of markings is heavily dependent upon their proper 
maintenance to provide maximum contrast with 
backgrounds. Compass-swinging bases will be painted 
with white nonreflective paint that conforms to |paragra"ph] 
[HM2)- 



6-7. Applicatio n of paint. 

see lparaqraph 2-2| b. 



For application of paint 



6-5. 



Clearances. 



6-1 



TM 5-823-4 



-SEE DETAIL "A' 



COMPASS-SWINGING 
BASE 



SHOULDER 



SEE DETAIL "B" 



|para4-bl 




37" WHEEL TURNTABLE 
AS REQUIRED BY 
USING SERVICE 
(SPEC MIL -T-5336A) 



?' MARKING WILL START AT OUTSIDE 
EDGE OF 37" WHEEL TURNTABLE 
WHERE REQUIRED BY USING SERVICE 

BRASS PLUGS 1" Dl A x 1 -3/4" DEEP 
INSTALLED IN RIGID PAVEMENTS 
AT ENDS OF ALL ?' WIDE WHITE 
PAINT STRIPE 



2" WIDE WHITE 
PAINT STRIPE 



BRASS PLUG INSTALLED AT CENTER 
POINT OF COMPASS SWINGING BASE 
MARKING OR MARKED ON CENTER 
POINT OF 37" WHEEL TURNTABLE 



SHOULDER 




DETAIL "8" 
COMPASS -SWINGING BASE 



SLOPE 2% MIN 
3% MAX 




r-SHOUlDER 



-* TAXIWAY OR APRON *• 

PLAN 

EACH PROPOSED LOCATION FOR A COMPASS-SWINGING ABASE MUST 
BE CHECKED BY A MAGNETOMETER TO INSURE THAT THE AREA HAS 
NEGLIGIBLE MAGNETIC CHARACTERISTICS REGARDLESS OF 
ADHERENCE TO IPARA4-5] 



NOTE: THICKNESS OF CONCRETE AND BASE COURSE, 
BASE COURSE DENSITY, TYPE OF SHOULDER 
SURFACING THICKNESS , AND CBR OF SHOULDER 
BASE COURSE ARE GOVERNED BY EXISTING 
CRITERIA OR ARE DEPENDENT UPON SITE 
CONDITIONS. 



Figure 6-1. Army airfield-heliport compass swinging base. 



6-2 



REPRODUCTION AUTHORIZATION/RESTRICTIONS 

This manual has been prepared by or for the Government and is public property and not 
subject to copyright. Reprints or republications of this manual should include a credit 
substantially as follows: "Department of the Army and Technical Manual TM 5-823-4, 
Marking of Army Airfield-Heliport Operational and Maintenance Facilities." 



TM 5-823-4 



CHAPTER 7 
MARKING OF OBSTRUCTIONS TO AIR NAVIGATION 



7-1. General. Obstructions to air navigation at all 
airfields and heliports at Army installations will be marked 
in accordance with FAA AC No. 70/7460-1 G. 
Obstruction marking will be limited to those objects that 
penetrate the clearance planes, and surfaces set forth in 
TM 5-8034 and to those objects that, by their nature and 
position constitute a hazard to air navigation. These 
markings should be held to the minimum commensurate 
with essential operational requirements. Obstruction 
markings on objects that are not, in fact, obstructions, 
present false and misleading information and should be 
eliminated. 

7-2. Detail requirements. Only those paint 
materials will be used that meet the minimum standards 
established by the FAA. 

a. Color marking. Obstruction marking will be 
made with aviation surface orange, or a combination of 
aviation surface orange and aviation surface white. 

b. Marking materials. Obstructions will be 
marked by the use of surface colors wherever 
practicable. Surface colors will consist of paint 
conforming to the Federal Specification, Military 
Specification, or Department of the Army, Corps of 
Engineers, Guide Specifications for Military Construction 
covering paint appropriate for the material being painted, 
or reflective tape conforming to Federal Specification 
LS300. Where marking by surface color is 
impracticable, the general definition and location of the 
obstructions will be indicated by suitable markers or flag. 
Aviation surface orange is defined as a color not darker 
than color chip No. 12197 nor lighter than color chip No. 
12246, as contained in Federal Standard No. 595. 

c. Application. 

(1) Painted markings will be applied to 
obstruction surfaces only after care has been taken to 
insure that such surfaces are dry and clean. 

(2) Reflective tape will be applied 
according to the manufacturer's instructions. 

(3) When impracticable to apply the 
marking material directly to the top 5 feet of poles or 
towers, supporting overhead or guy wires, the marking 
material may be placed on a backlog surface, 
longitudinally split tube or other mountable device and 
this may be attached directly to the poles or towers. 

7-3. Lighting of airfields, heliports and 
obstructions. For criteria on lighting or airfields, 
heliports and obstructions, see TM 5-81 1 -5. 

7-4. Purpose of marking. The purpose of marking a 
structure is to warn airmen of its presence during 
daylight hours. To accomplish this objective, it may be 



necessary to color the structure or indicate its presence 
by use of suitable markers, flags or lights. 

7-5. Omission of standard marking. When high 
intensity lighting systems are employed in accordance 
with the standards contained herein, the marking of 
structures with standard aviation surface orange and 
white paint and red obstruction lights may by omitted. 
The high intensity lighting systems are considered to be 
far more effective than the aviation surface orange and 
white paint and may therefore be recommended in lieu of 
standard marking. This is particularly true under certain 
ambient light conditions and position of the sun relative 
to direction of flight. 

7-6. Colors. Maximum visibility of an obstruction by 
contrast in colors can best be obtained by the use of 
aviation surface orange and white paint. Orange or white 
enamel paint may be used for marking, provided its 
chromaticity and luminance factors satisfy Federal 
Standard, color, as follows: 

a. Orange. Number 12197 (aviation surface 
orange). 

b. White. Number 17875 (aviation white). 

7-7. Painting. The specifications of surface colors 
apply only to freshly painted surfaces. Paints used for 
surface markings usually change with time. While it is 
not feasible to require strict maintenance, surfaces 
should be repainted whenever the color changes 
noticeably or its effectiveness is impaired by scaling or 
chipping. A color tolerance chart is available for 
determining when repainting is necessary. The lower 
portion of structures situated in wooded or sheltered 
areas are protected to some extent from direct sunshine, 
blowing sand and sleet, and other atmospheric and 
environmental elements that tend to deteriorate painted 
surfaces. Therefore, examination of the ground or 
bottom band of aviation surface orange paint is not a 
good indication and should not be used as a criteria for 
determining when repainting is necessary. 

a. Materials and application. Quality paint 
materials should be selected to be compatible with the 
surfaces to be painted, including previous coatings on 
the surfaces if any, as well as suitable for the 
environmental service conditions to which it will be 
subjected. Surface preparation and paint application 
should be accomplished in accordance with the 
manufacturer's recommendations as appropriate for the 
paint to be used and surface to be coated. 



Change 1 7-1 



b. Surfaces not requiring paint. If the smooth 
surface of paint on the ladders, decks and walkways of 
certain types of steel towers and similar structures 
presents a potential danger to maintenance personnel, 
such surfaces need not be painted. Care should be 
taken so the overall marking effect of the painting is not 
reduced. Where the painting or the act of painting 
certain precision or critical surfaces would have an 
adverse effect on the desired transmission or radiation 
characteristics of a radio frequency signal, such painting 
may be omitted. 

c. Skeletal structures. Paint should be applied 
to all surfaces both 'inner and outer, of the framework in 
order to be effective. This applies to the supporting 
structures of overhead transmission lines as well as 
radio, television and similar skeletal structures. 

7-8. Patterns. Patterns of various types are used to 
mark obstructions to air navigation. Normally, the size 
and shape of the obstruction will determine the pattern to 
be used. 

a. Solid pattern. An obstruction the projection 
of which on any vertical plane has both dimensions less 
than 10.5 feet, should be colored aviation surface 
orange. 

b. Alternate bands of orange and white (figure 
\7-1l Alternate bands of aviation surface orange and 
white are normally displayed on the following structures: 

(1) Radio and television towers and 
sup porting structure s of overhead transmission lines 
(see l paragraph 7-9j ). 

(2) Poles. 

(3) Smokestacks. 

(4) Skeletal framework of storage tanks and 
similar structures. 

(5) Structures which appear narrow from a 
side view. 

(a) Width of bands. The width of bands for 
structures of any height should be equal, provided that 
each band has a width of not more than 100 feet nor less 
than Vh feet. The bands should be perpendicular to the 
vertical axis of the obstruction with the bands at each 



TM 5-823-4 

end colored orange. The width of each band for 
structures as high as 700 feet above ground level (AGL) 
should be approximately one-seventh of the height of the 
structure. Higher structures should be painted an 
additional orange and white band for each additional 200 
feet of height, or fraction thereof, with the width of all 
bands equal and in proportion to the structure's height 
above ground level. For example, it a structure is: 



Greater Than 


But Not Exceeding 


Band Width 


10.5 feet 

700 feet 

900 feet 

1,100 feet 


700 feet 

900 feet 

1,100 feet 

1 ,300 feet 


1/7 of height of structure 
1/9 of height of structure 
1/11 of height of structure 
1/13 of height of structure 



If the top of the structure has a cover or roof, the top 
orange band should be continued to cover the entire top 
of the structure. If the object under study is a flagpole, 
skeletal structure or similar object erected on top of a 
building, the combined height of the object and building 
will determine whether marking is recommended; 
however, only the height of the object under study 
determines the width of the color bands. 

(b) Partial marking. If marking is 

recommended on only a portion of a structure because 
of shielding by other objects or terrain, the width of the 
bands should be determined by the overall height of the 
structure. A minimum of three bands should be 
displaced on the upper portion of the structure. 

c. Checkerboard pattern \tigures /-2 t m d7-3).\ 
Checkerboard patterns of alternate rectangles of aviation 
surface orange and white are normally displayed on: 

(1) Water, gas and grain storage tanks, 
excluding skeletal framework. 

(2) Buildings. 

(3) Structures which appear broad from a 
side view, such as structures having a horizontal 
dimension 10.5 feet or greater and this horizontal 
dimensi6n is equal to or greater than the vertical 
dimension. 



Change 1 7-2 



TM 5-823-4 



Not less 
than 5 ft. 
nor more than 
10 ft. 



trrm 
I 
More than 300 ft. 





but not more than 450 ft. 



Figure 7-1. Painting and lighting of chimneys, poles, towers and similar obstructions. 



7-3 



(a) Size of rectangles. The sides of the 
checkerboard rectangles should measure not less than 5 
feet nor more than 20 feet. However, if it is impracticable 
because of the size or shape of a structure the rectangle 
may have sides less than 5 feet provided their 
dimensions remain as close as practicable to the 5-foot 
minimum. When possible, corner surfaces should be 
colored orange. If it is technically impracticable to color 
the roof of a structure in a checkerboard pattern, such 
roof may be colored orange. If part or all of a spherical 
shaped structure does not permit the exact application of 



TM 5-823-4 

a checkerboard pattern, then the shape of the new 
rectangles may be modified to fit the shape of the 
spherical surface. 

(b) Exceptions. If the type construction of 
storage tanks does not permit coloring by a 
checkerboard pattern, then such obstructions should be 
colored by alternate bands of orange and white, or a 
limited checkerboard pattern applied to the upper one- 
third of the structure, provided an aeronautical study 
indicates that the modified marking will provide adequate 
protection for air navigation. 





IrtS^d 





LIGHTING 
More than 150 ft. but 
not more than 300 ft. 



LIGHTING 
More than 150 ft. but 
not more than 300 ft. 



Figure 7-2. Painting and lighting of water towers, storage tanks and similar obstructions. 



7-4 



TM 5-823-4 




More than 150 ft. (45m) but 
not more thon 300 ft. (90m) 




Figure 7-3. Painting and lighting of water towers and similar obstructions. 



7-5 



d. Teardrop pattern. Spherical shaped water 
storage tanks with a single circular standpipe support 
m ay be colored in a teardrop stripped pattern, as shown 
in I figure 7-4~l The tank should be colored to show 
alternate stripes of aviation surface orange and white. 
The stripes should extend from the top center of the tank 
to its supporting standpipe. 

(1) Width of stripes. The width of the 
stripes should be equal and the width of each stripe at 
the greatest girth of the tank should not be less than 5 
feet nor more than 1 5 feet. 

(2) Community name. If it is desirable to 
paint the name of the community on the side of the tank, 
the stripe pattern may be broken to serve this purpose. 
This open area should have a maximum height of 3 feet. 

7-9. Markers. Markers should be used to mark 
obstructions when it has been determined that it is 
impracticable to mark such obstructions by painting. 
Markers may also be used in addition to aviation surface 
orange and white colors when it has been determined 
that such markings should be used to provide protection 
for air commerce. They should be displayed in 
conspicuous positions on or adjacent to the obstructions 
so as to retain the general definition of the obstruction. 
They should be recognizable in clear air from a distance 
of at least 1,000 feet in all directions from which an 
aircraft is likely to approach. They should be distinctively 
shaped so they are not mistaken for markers that are 
used to convey other information. The shape should be 
such that the hazard they mark is not increased. 

a. Spherical markers. Spherical markers are 
normally displayed on overhead wires. Markers may be 
of another shape, provided the projected area of such 
markers will not be less than that presented by a 
spherical marker. 

(1) Display. At least one such marker 
should be displayed at equal intervals for each 150 feet 
or fraction thereof, of the overall length of the overhead 
line and not lower than the highest wire. The top 5 feet 
of the poles and towers to which overhead wires or guy 
wires are attached will be marked. The distance 
between markers may be increased to not more than 
600 feet when the overhead wires are located more than 
15,000 feet from the nearest landing area. Where there 
is more than one overhead wire on which the spheres 
can be installed, the spheres may be installed alternately 
along each wire as long as the distance between 
adjacent spheres meets the spacing standard. This 



TM 5-823-4 

allows the weight and wind loading factors to be 
distributed. 

(2) Size and color. The diameter of the 
markers should not be less than 20 inches and should be 
colored aviation orange. 

b. Flag markers. Flags may be used to mark 
obstructions when it has been determined that the use of 
coloring or spherical markers is technically impracticable. 

(1) Display. Flag markers should be 
displayed around, on top of the obstruction or around its 
highest edge. When flags are used to mark extensive 
obstructions or closely grouped obstructions, they should 
be displayed approximately 50 feet apart. 

(2) Shape. Flags should be rectangular in 
shape and have stiffeners to keep them from drooping in 
calm wind. The flag stakes should be of such strength 
and height that they will support the flags free of the 
ground, vegetation or nearby surfaces. 

(3) Color patterns. Flags should be in one 
of the following patterns: 

(a) Solid color. Aviation surface 
orange not less than 2 feet on a side. 

(b) Orange and white. Two triangular 
sections, one of aviation surface orange and the other of 
aviation surface white, combined to form a rectangle not 
less than 2 feet on a side. 

(c) Checkerboard. A checkerboard 
pattern of aviation surface orange and aviation surface 
white squares, each 1 foot plus or minus 10 percent on a 
side, combined to form a rectangle not less than 3 feet 
on aside. 

7-10. Special markings. In addition to the marking 
recommendations included herein other documents 
contain appropriate guidelines. 

a. Vehicles. Advisory Circular 150/5210-5, 
Painting, Marking and Lighting of Vehicles Used on an 
Airport, contains provisions for marking vehicles 
customarily used on landing areas. 

b. FAA facilities. Obstruction marking for FAA 
facilities shall conform to FAA Drawing Number D-5480, 
referenced in Federal Aviation Agency Standard, FAA- 
STD-003, Paint Systems for Structures. 

c. Unusual complexities. The FAA may also 
recommend appropriate marking in an area where 
obstructions are so grouped as to present a common 
hazard to air commerce. 



7-6 




Figure 7-4. Painting of single pedestal water tower by teardrop pattern. 



7-7 



TM 5-823-4 



CHAPTER 8 
GROUND RECEIVER CHECKPOINTS 



8-1. Location. Ground receiver checkpoints will be 
established in accordance with FAA Order 6790.4A and 
will be on the airfield or heliport ramp or taxiways 
(preferably the runup area) at points selected for easy 
access by aircraft, but where other airfield or heliport 
traffic will not be unduly obstructed. 



Ground checkpoints normally will not be established at 
distances less than one-half mile from the facility nor 
should they be established on non-paved areas. 



8-2. Markings. Painting of surface markings will 
as described ir l figure 8-Tl below. 



be 




NOTES 



NOTES: 

1. PAINT WHITE. 

2. PAINT YELLOW (CHROME YELLOW TAXIWAY AVIATION YELLOW). 

3. PAINT YELLOW ARROW TO BE ALIGNED IN THE DIRECTION IN 
WHICH IT IS PREFERABLE FOR AIRCRAFT TO OCCUPY THE CIRCLE. 

4. CIRCLE MAY BE BORDERED ON INSIDE AND OUTSIDE WITH 
6" BLACK BAND IF NECESSARY FOR CONTRAST. 

5. PAINT INTERIOR OF CIRCLE BLACK — CONCRETE SURFACES ONLY. 



Figure 8- 1 . Ground receiver checkpoint markings. 
Change 1 8-1 



TM 5-823-4 
APPENDIX A 

REFERENCES 



Government Publications 

Department of Defense 

MIL-STD-765 General Requirements for Compass Swinging, Aircraft 

Department of the Army 

TM 5-8034 Planning of Army Aviation Facilities 

TM 581 1 -5 Army Aviation Lighting 

Department of Transportation 

Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, 

Washington, DC 20402 

AC No. 70/7460-1 G Obstruction Marking and Lighting 

AC No. 150/5210-5 Painting, Marking and Lighting of Vehicles Used on Airports 

AC No. 1 50/5340-1 E Marking of Paved Areas on Airports 

AC No. 1 50/5340-1 8 Taxiway Guidance Sign System 

FAA Order 6790. 4A Maintenance of VHF Equipment 

FAA-STD-003 Paint Systems for Structures 

Government Services Administration 

Federal Standards (Fed. Std.), Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, 
Washington, DC 20402 

Fed. Std. 595 Color Guide, Ready Mixed Paint 

Federal Specifications (Fed. Spec), Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing 
Office, Washington, DC 20402 

Fed. Spec. L-S-300 Sheeting and Tape, Reflective 

Fed. Spec. TT-B-1325 Beads (Glass Spheres), Retro-Reflective 

Fed. Spec. TT-P-85E Paint, Traffic and Airfield Marking, Solvent Base 

Fed. Spec. TT-P-1952 Paint, Traffic and Airfield Marking, Emulsion Base 

Change 1 A-1 



TM 5-823-4 



The proponent agency of this publication is the Office of the Chief of Engineers, United States Army. Users are 
invited to send comments and suggested improvements on DA Form 2028 (Recommended Changes to 
Publications and Blank Forms) direct to HQDA (DAEN-ECE-G), WASH DC 20314-1000. 

By Order of the Secretary of the Army: 

Carl E. Vuono 
General, United States Army 
Official: Chief of Staff 

R. L. DILWORTH 

Brigadier General, United States Army 

The Adjutant General 

DISTRIBUTION: 

To be distributed in accordance with DA Form 12-34B, requirements for Airfield Pavements. 



* U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE : 1993 O - 342-421 (80004) 




RECOMMENDED CHANGES TO EQUIPMENT TECHNICAL PUBLICATIONS 



gafflFiooo!! wmm 



WITH THIS PUBLICATION? 



THEN. . JOT DOWN THE ^ 
DOPE ABOUT IT ON THIS 
FORM, CAREFULLY TEAR IT 
OUT. FOLD IT AND DROP IT 
IN THE MAIL' 



FROM: (PRINT VOL* UNITS COMPLETE ADORESS) 



DATE BENT 



PUBLICATION NUMBER 



PUBLICATION DATE 



PUBLICATION TITLE 



BE EXACT PIN-POINT WHERE IT IS 



PAOC 

NO 



PAftA- 



FIOURE 
NO 



TABLE 
NO 



IN THIS SPACE TELL WHAT IS WRONG 
AND WHAT SHOULD BE DONE ABOUT IT: 



PMNTtO NAME. ORAM ON TITLC. AND TOLSPMONE NUMMR 



SION HERE: 



DA, ^2028-2 



PREVIOUS EDITIONS 
• ARE OBSOLETE. 



P.S -IF VOUR OUTFIT WANTS TO KNOW ABOUT YOUR 
RECOMMENDATION MAKE A CARBON COPY OF THIS 
AND GIVE IT TO YOUR HEADQUARTERS. 



PIN: 025951-000